From MAGICC6 Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This page lists the references relevant for the MAGICC6 model description.

Albrecht, B.A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227--1230, 1989.

Allen, M.: Do-it-yourself climate prediction, Nature, 401, 642--642, 1999.

Andrews, T. and Forster, P.M.: CO$_2$ forcing induces semi-direct effects with consequences for climate feedback interpretations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04802, doi:10.1029/2007GL032273, 2008.

Boer, G.J. and Yu, B.: Climate sensitivity and response, Clim. Dynam., 20, 415--429, 2003.

Bryan, K., Manabe, S., and Pacanowski, R.C.: Global Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model. 2. Oceanic Circulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 30--46, 1975.

Butchart, N. and Scaife, A.A.: Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate, Nature, 410, 799--802, 2001.

Collins, W.D., Ramaswamy, V., Schwarzkopf, M.D., Sun, Y., Portmann, R.W., Fu, Q., Casanova, S. E.B., Dufresne, J.L., Fillmore, D.W., Forster, P. M.D., Galin, V.Y., Gohar, L.K., Ingram, W.J., Kratz, D.P., Lefebvre, M.P., Li, J., Marquet, P., Oinas, V., Tsushima, Y., Uchiyama, T., and Zhong, W.Y.: Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14317, doi:10.1029/2005JD006713, 2006.

Cubasch, U., Meehl, G.A., Boer, G.J., Stouffer, R.J., Dix, M., Noda, A., Senior, C.A., Raper, S., and Yap, K.: Projections of Future Climate Change, in: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by: Houghton, J., Ding, Y., Griggs, D., Noguer, M., vander Linden, P., Dai, X., Maskell, K., and Johnson, C., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p.892, 2001.

Daniel, J.S., Solomon, S., Portmann, R.W., and Garcia, R.R.: Stratospheric ozone destruction: The importance of bromine relative to chlorine, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23871--23880, 1999.

Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Webb, M.J., Gregory, J.M., and Boucher, O.: Carbon dioxide induced stomatal closure increases radiative forcing via a rapid reduction in low cloud, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02703, doi:10.1029/2008GL036273, 2009.

Ehhalt, D., Prather, M.J., Dentener, F., Derwent, R., Dlugokencky, E., Holland, E., Isaksen, I., Katima, J., Kirchhoff, V., Matson, P., Midgley, P., and Wang, M.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases, in: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by: Houghton, J., Ding, Y., Griggs, D., Noguer, M., vander Linden, P., Dai, X., Maskell, K., and Johnson, C., p.892, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.

Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M., and VanDorland, R.: Chapter 2: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, in: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG 1, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H.L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 129--234, 2007.

Forster, P. M.D. and Taylor, K.E.: Climate forcings and climate sensitivities diagnosed from coupled climate model integrations, J. Climate, 19, 6181--6194, 2006.

Friedlingstein, P., Cox, P., Betts, R., Bopp, L., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V., Cadule, P., Doney, S., Eby, M., Fung, I., Bala, G., John, J., Jones, C., Joos, F., Kato, T., Kawamiya, M., Knorr, W., Lindsay, K., Matthews, H., Raddatz, T., Rayner, P., Reick, C., Roeckner, E., Schnitzler, K.-G., Schnur, R., Strassmann, K., Weaver, K., Yoshikawa, C., and Zeng, N.: Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison, J. Climate, 19, 3337--3353, 2006.

Frieler, K., Meinshausen, M., Schneider von Deimling, T., Andrews, T., and Forster, P.: Changes in Global-mean Precipitation in Response to Warming, Greenhouse Gas Forcing and Black Carbon, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL045953}, in press, 2011.

Gates, D.M.: Global biospheric response to increasing atmospheric cabron dioxide concentration, in: Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on vegetation, edited by: Strain, B. and Cure, J., DOE/ER0238, US Dept. of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, Washington, DC, USA, 171--184, 1985.

Gifford, R.M.: Implications of CO$_2$ effects on vegetation for the global carbon budget, in: The global carbon cycle, edited by: Heimann, M., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 115, 159--200, 1993.

Gregory, J.M. and Webb, M.: Tropospheric Adjustment induces a cloud component of CO2 forcing, J. Climate, 21, 58--71, 2008.

Gregory, J.M., Ingram, W.J., Palmer, M.A., Jones, G.S., Stott, P.A., Thorpe, R.B., Lowe, J.A., Johns, T.C., and Williams, K.D.: A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03205, doi:10.1029/2003GL018747, 2004.

Gultepe, I. and Isaac, G.A.: Scale Effects on Averaging of Cloud Droplet and Aerosol Number Concentrations: Observations and Models, J. Climate, 12, 1268,<1268:SEOAOC>2.0.CO;2 doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1268:SEOAOC>2.0.CO;2}, 1999.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Nazarenko, L., Lacis, A., Schmidt, G.A., Russell, G., Aleinov, I., Bauer, M., Bauer, S., Bell, N., Cairns, B., Canuto, V., Chandler, M., Cheng, Y., DelGenio, A., Faluvegi, G., Fleming, E., Friend, A., Hall, T., Jackman, C., Kelley, M., Kiang, N., Koch, D., Lean, J., Lerner, J., Lo, K., Menon, S., Miller, R., Minnis, P., Novakov, T., Oinas, V., Perlwitz, J., Perlwitz, J., Rind, D., Romanou, A., Shindell, D., Stone, P., Sun, S., Tausnev, N., Thresher, D., Wielicki, B., Wong, T., Yao, M., and Zhang, S.: Efficacy of climate forcings, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776, 2005.

Harvey, L. D.D.: Managing atmospheric CO$_2$, Clim. Change, 15, 343--381, 1989.

Harvey, L. D.D.: Transient Temperature and Sea-Level Response of a 2-Dimensional Ocean-Climate Model to Greenhouse-Gas Increases, J. Geophys. Res.-Ocean., 99, 18447--18466, 1994.

Harvey, L. D.D. and Schneider, S.H.: Transient Climate Response to External Forcing on 10(0)-10(4) Year Time Scales. 1. Experiments with Globally Averaged, Coupled, Atmosphere and Ocean Energy-Balance Models, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 2191--2205, 1985{\natexlab{a}}.

Harvey, L. D.D. and Schneider, S.H.: hklhklhkfdsldfs, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 2207--2222, 1985{\natexlab{b}}.

Harvey, L. D.D., Gregory, J.M., Hoffert, M., Jain, A., Lal, M., Leemans, R., Raper, S. C.B., Wigley, T. M.L., and deWolde, J.: An Introduction to Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report: IPCC Technical Paper 2, Tech. rep., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1997.

Hasselmann, K., Sausen, R., Maierreimer, E., and Voss, R.: On the Cold Start Problem in Transient Simulations with Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Models, Clim. Dynam., 9, 53--61, 1993.

Hoffert, M.I., Callegari, A.J., and Hsieh, C.T.: The Role of Deep-Sea Heat-Storage in the Secular Response to Climatic Forcing, Journal of Geophys. Res., 85, 6667--6679, 1980.

Johns, T.C., Carnell, R.E., Crossley, J.F., Gregory, J.M., Mitchell, J. F.B., Senior, C.A., Tett, S. F.B., and Wood, R.A.: The second Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM: Model description, spinup and validation, Clim. Dynam., 13, 103--134, 1997.

Joos, F., Bruno, M., Stocker, T., Siegenthaler, U., LeQuere, C., and Sarmiento, J.: An efficient and accurate representation of complex oceanic and biospheric models of anthropogenic carbon uptake, Tellus, 48B, 397--417, 1996.

Joos, F., Prentice, I.C., Sitch, S., Meyer, R., Hooss, G., Plattner, G.-K., Gerber, S., and Hasselmann, K.: Global Warming feedbacks on terrestrial carbon uptake under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 891--907, 2001.

Joshi, M., Shine, K., Ponater, M., Stuber, N., Sausen, R., and Li, L.: A comparison of climate response to different radiative forcings in three general circulation models: towards an improved metric of climate change, Clim. Dynam., 20, 843--854, 2003.

Kattenberg, A., Giorgi, F., Grassl, H., Meehl, G., Mitchell, J. F.B., Stouffer, R.J., Tokika, T., Weaver, A.J., and Wigley, T. M.L.: Climate models - Projection of future climate. pp. 285-357 (Chapter 6), in: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Houghton, J., MeiraFilho, L., Callander, B., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A., and Maskell, K., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 572, 1996.

Knutti, R., Allen, M.R., Friedlingstein, P., Gregory, J.M., Hegerl, G.C., Meehl, G.A., Meinshausen, M., Murphy, J.M., Plattner, G.-K., Raper, S. C.B., Stocker, T.F., Stott, P.A., Teng, H., and Wigley, T. M.L.: A review of uncertainties in global temperature projections over the twenty-first century, J. Climate, 21, 2651--2663, 2008.

Knutti, R., Hegerl, G.C.: The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth's temperature to radiation changes, Nature Geoscience, 1, 735-743, 2008.

Manabe, S. and Bryan, K.: Climate Calculations with a Combined Ocean-Atmosphere Model, J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 786--789, 1969.

Manabe, S., Bryan, K., and Spelman, M.J.: Global Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model. 1. Atmospheric Circulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 3--29, 1975.

Mann, M.E.: On smoothing potentially non-stationary climate time series, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07214, doi:10.1029/2004GL019569, 2004.

Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins, W., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J., Noda, A., Raper, S. C.B., Watterson, I., Weaver, A., and Zhao, Z.-C.: Chapter 10: Global Climate Projections, in: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, edited by Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H.L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747--845, 2007.

Meinshausen, M., Wigley, T. M.L., and Raper, S. C.B.: Emulating atmosphere-ocean and carbon cycle models with a simpler model, MAGICC6: Part 2 -- Applications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., in prepararion, 2011.

Mitchell, T.D.: Pattern scaling -- An examination of the accuracy of the technique for describing future climates, Clim. Change, 60, 217--242, 2003.

Murphy, J.M. and Mitchell, J. F.B.: Transient-Response of the Hadley-Center Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Increasing Carbon-Dioxide. 2. Spatial and Temporal Structure of Response, J. Climate, 8, 57--80, 1995.

Murphy, J.M., Sexton, D. M.H., Barnett, D.N., Jones, G.S., Webb, M.J., Collins, M., and Stainforth, D.A.: Quantification of modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change simulations, Nature, 430, 768--772, 2004.

Myhre, G., Highwood, E.J., Shine, K.P., and Stordal, F.: New estimates of radiative forcing due to well mixed greenhouse gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2715--2718, 1998.

Nakicenovic, N. and Swart, R., eds.: IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000.

O'Neill, B.C. and Melnikov, N.B.: Learning about parameter and structural uncertainty in carbon cycle models, Clim. Change, 89, 23--44, 2008.

Osborn, T.J., Raper, S. C.B., and Briffa, K.R.: Simulated climate change during the last 1000 years: comparing the ECHO-G general circulation model with the MAGICC simple climate model., Clim. Dynam., 27, 185--197, 2006.

Ramaswamy, V., Boucher, O., Haigh, J., Hauglustaine, D., Haywood, J., Myhre, G., Nakajiama, T., Shi, G., and Solomon, S.: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, in: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by Houghton, J., Ding, Y., Griggs, D., Noguer, M., vander Linden, P., Dai, X., Maskell, K., and Johnson, C., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 892, 2001.

Randall, D., Wood, R.A., Bony, S., Colman, R., Fichefet, T., Fyfe, J., Kattsov, V., Pitman, A., Shukla, J., Srinivasan, J., Stouffer, R., Sumi, A., and Taylor, K.E.: Chapter 8: Climate Models and Their Evaluation, in: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, edited by Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., and Miller, H., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 589--662, 2007.

Rao, S. and Riahi, K.: The role of Non-CO2 greenhouse gases in climate change mitigation: Long-term scenarios for the 21$^{st}$ century, Energy J., 177--200, 2006.

Rao, S., Riahi, K., Kupiainen, K., and Klimont, Z.: Long-term scenarios for black and organic carbon emissions, Environ. Sci., 2, 205--216, 2005.

Raper, S. C.B.: Interpretation of Model Results that Show Changes in the Effective Climate Sensitivity with Time, in: IPCC Workshop on Climate Sensitivity, 131--133, IPCC, available online at: \url{}, Paris, France, 2004.

Raper, S. C.B. and Cubasch, U.: Emulation of the results from a coupled general circulation model using a simple climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1107--1110, 1996.

Raper, S. C.B., Wigley, T. M.L., and Warrick, R.A.: Global Sea-level Rise: Past and Future, in: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence: Causes, Consequences and Strategies, edited by: Milliman, J. and Haq, B., Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 11--45, 1996.

Raper, S. C.B., Gregory, J.M., and Osborn, T.J.: Use of an upwelling-diffusion energy balance climate model to simulate and diagnose A/OGCM results, Clim. Dynam., 17, 601--613, 2001.

Santer, B., Wigley, T., Schlesinger, M., and Mitchell, J. F.B.: Developing Climate Scenarios from Equilibrium GCM Results, Report No.\ 47, Tech. Rep.47, Max-Planck-Institut f\"ur Meteorologie, 1990.

{Sarmiento}, J.L., {Orr}, J.C., and {Siegenthaler}, U.: {A perturbation simulation of CO$_{2}$ uptake in an ocean general circulation model}, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3621--3645, 1992.

Schlesinger, M.E. and Jiang, X.J.: Simple-Model Representation of Atmosphere-Ocean Gcms and Estimation of the Time Scale of CO$_2$-Induced Climate Change, J. Climate, 3, 1297--1315, 1990.

Schlesinger, M.E. and Jiang, X.J.: Revised Projection of Future Greenhouse Warming, Nature, 350, 219--221, 1991.

Schlesinger, M.E., Gates, W.L., and Han, Y.-J.: The role of the ocean in CO2-induced climatic warming: Preliminary results from the OSU coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM, in: Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models, edited by: Nihoul, J., 447--478, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1985.

Schleussner, C.F., Frieler, K., Meinshausen, M., Yin, J., and Levermann, A.: Emulating Atlantic overturning strength for low emission scenarios: consequences for sea-level rise along the North American east coast, Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., 1, 357--384, doi:10.5194/esdd-1-357-2010, 2010.

Senior, C.A. and Mitchell, J. F.B.: The time-dependence of climate sensitivity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2685--2688, 2000.

Shine, K., Derwent, R., Wuebbles, D., and Morcrette, J.-J.: Radiative forcing of climate, in: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, edited by Houghton, J., Jenkins, G., and Ephraums, J., Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 41--68, 1990.

Stainforth, D.A., Aina, T., Christensen, C., Collins, M., Faull, N., Frame, D.J., Kettleborough, J.A., Knight, S., Martin, A., Murphy, J.M., Piani, C., Sexton, D., Smith, L.A., Spicer, R.A., Thorpe, A.J., and Allen, M.R.: Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases, Nature, 433, 403--406, 2005.

Stouffer, R.J.: Time scales of climate response, J. Climate, 17, 209--217, 2004.

Takahashi, T., Olafson, J., Goddard, J.G., Chipman, D.W., and Sutherland, S.C.: Seasonal variation of CO2 and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: A comparative study, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 7, 843--878, 1993.

Takemura, T., Tsushima, Y., Yokohata, T., Nozawa, T., Nagashima, T., and Nakajima, T.: Time evolutions of various radiative forcings for the past 150 years estimated by a general circulation model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19705, doi:10.1029/2006GL026666}, 2006.

Thornton, P. E., Doney, S. C., Lindsay, K., Moore, J. K., Mahowald, N., Randerson, J. T., Fung, I., Lamarque, J.-F., Feddema, J. J., and Lee, Y.-H.: Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, Biogeosciences, 6, 2099--2120, doi:10.5194/bg-6-2099-2009, 2009.

Trenberth, K.E. and Guillemot, C.J.: The Total Mass of the Atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 23079--23088, 1994.

Twomey, S.: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149--1152, 1977.

Wigley, T. M.L.: Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming?, Nature, 349, 503--506, 1991{\natexlab{a}}.

Wigley, T. M.L.: A Simple Inverse Carbon Cycle Model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 5, 373--382, 1991{\natexlab{b}}.

Wigley, T. M.L.: Balancing the Carbon Budget -- Implications for Projections of Future Carbon-Dioxide Concentration Changes, Tellus, 45B, 409--425, 1993.

Wigley, T. M.L.: Stabilization of CO2 concentration levels, in: The Carbon Cycle, edited by Wigley, T. M.L. and Schimel, D., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 258--276, 2000.

Wigley, T. M.L.: MAGICC/SCENGEN 5.3: USER MANUAL (version 2), \url{}, 2008.

Wigley, T. M.L. and Raper, S. C.B.: Thermal-Expansion of Sea-Water Associated with Global Warming, Nature, 330, 127--131, 1987.

Wigley, T. M.L. and Raper, S. C.B.: Implications for climate and sea level of revised IPCC emissions scenarios, Nature, 357, 293--300, 1992.

Wigley, T. M.L. and Raper, S. C.B.: Interpretation of high projections for global-mean warming, Science, 293, 451--454, 2001.

Wigley, T. M.L. and Schlesinger, M.: Analytical Solution for the effect of increasing CO$_2$ on global mean temperature, Nature, 315, 649--652, 1985.

Wigley, T. M.L., Richels, R., and Edmonds, J.: Overshoot pathways to CO$_2$ stabilization in a multi-gas context, in: Human Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, edited by: Schlesinger, M., Kheshgi, H., Smith, J., dela Chesnaye, F., Reilly, J., Wilson, T., and Kostad, C., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 84--92, 2007.

Wigley, T. M.L., Clarke, L.E., Edmonds, J.A., Jacoby, H.D., Paltsev, S., Pitcher, H., Reilly, J.M., Richels, R., Sarofim, M.C., and Smith, S.J.: Uncertainties in climate stabilization, Clim. Change, 97, 85--121, 2009.

Williams, K.D., Ingram, W.J., and Gregory, J.M.: Time variation of effective climate sensitivity in GCMs, J. Climate, 21, 5076--5090, 2008.